Calamity Jane bursts into action as the Deadwood Stage, with Calamity on board, races across the open prairie heading for Deadwood town. The opening number moves Calamity from the Stage into the streets of Deadwood, introduces some of the main characters in the story; Wild Bill Hickock (who she has a love-hate relationship with), Henry Miller, the owner of the local inn, The Golden Garter. Calamity tells stories of how she has killed Indians and rescued the local Lieutenant Danny Gilmartin (who she is infatuated with.)
The owner of The Golden Garter, Henry Miller has just hired Francis Fryer, a new act to perform that night at the Inn only to discover, to his horror that this is a man not a woman. In an attempt to dupe the men of the town, Henry Miller insists that Francis Fryer dresses and sings like a women that night until they can find a replacement. The deception is of course discovered and there is uproar until Calamity Jane fires her gun and declares that she will go to Chicago and bring back the famous vaudeville star Adelaide Adams.
Calamity Jane arrives in Chicago and finds the theatre where Adelaide Adams is performing. Going backstage to the dressing rooms she hears singing and goes into the dressing room, assuming that the person singing in there is the star herself. She actually finds Adelaide maid, Katie, a would-be singer. She invites ‘Adelaide’ to Deadwood and is surprised when she agrees.
Calamity and Katie arrive in Deadwood and Katie prepares to perform on the stage at The Golden Garter pretending to be Adelaide Adams. After a shaky start and with Calamity’s encouragement, Katie eventually blossoms and becomes a great success in the town.
Calamity invites Katie to move into her wood cabin and at Katie’s suggestion they pretty the place up and make it comfortable. As they do this they discuss the local dance and who they would like to go with and Calamity declares her love for Lieutenant Gilmartin. They receive a surprise visit from Wild Bill Hickock and Lieutenant Gilmartin who both want to take Katie to the ball. Eventually it is decided that the Lieutenant will take Calamity and Wild Bill will take Katie.
At the ball Calamity discovers Katie in the arms of Lieutenant Gilmartin. She has a row with Katie and orders her to leave town. Katie packs her bags and goes and Calamity soon realized that she has made a mistake and is distraught. She confides in Wild Bill Hickock who explains to Calamity that her actions will not make Lieutenant Gilmartin love her. Wild Bill declares that he was in love with Katie. They comfort each other but soon realize that they had all been mismatched after all and that Calamity and Bill are really in love. The musical ends with the double wedding of Calamity and Wild Bill and Katie and the Lieutenant.